Bible and calendars
Bible and calendars
PREFACE BIBLE AND CALENDAR
I. PRELIMINARY NOTIONS
1. METHODOLOGY BIBLE AND CALENDAR
2. A QUITE ANCIENT NEW CALENDAR
3. ABOUT CALENDARS
4. A LUSTRUM
5. SWIFT AS THE WIND
II. REDATING JESUS' DEATH
1. DID JESUS' CRUCIFIXION ACTUALLY HAPPEN ON APRIL, 7th, 30 ?
2. RECONSTRUCTING OLD LUNAR OBSERVATIONS
3. EASTER FELL ON A SATURDAY
4. NEW YEAR WAS A SATURDAY TOO
5. THE ONLY LUNAR EXPLANATION
6. THE LONG MINISTRY OF JOHN THE BAPTIST
7. A NEW READING OF DANIEL'S PROPHECY
8. "THEY HAD BEEN REBUILDING THE TEMPLE FOR 46 YEARS..."
9. THE ROMAN POINT OF VIEW
10. EXIT PILATE - ARMY MANOEUVRES IN THE EAST
11. PAUL'S TRAVELS
12. "AND JESUS HIMSELF BEGAN TO BE ABOUT 30 YEARS OF AGE"
13. CONCLUSION
III. THE SECOND TEMPLE CALENDAR
1. WHAT CALENDAR WAS IN USE AT THE TIME
2. ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF JUBILEE YEARS
3. RECONSTRUCTING THE ANTIQUE CALENDAR
4. THE CORRECT WAY TO USE FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS
5. THE CREATION OF THE WORLD ERA
IV. CONCLUSION
V. ANNEXE
FINAL REMARKS

III. THE SECOND TEMPLE CALENDAR



   

1. WHAT CALENDAR WAS IN USE AT TIME ?




In the second chapter of our study - as the reader has surely noticed - we have been very careful not to mention any particular calendar in use at the time and we have only focused on lunar observations.

Nonetheless, Daniel's prophecy "of the 70 weeks" (Daniel, 9, 24-27), which we summoned to confirm the thesis we were putting forward, called our attention on a particular type of lunisolar calendar very frequently used in Antiquity during the 1st millenium before J.C.

The question is now to know whether this "antique" calendar was in use during the second Temple period (-515 to +70) in Jerusalem.

First of all, let us note that at the time the Jewish people had been sedentary for centuries and that the sequence of the seasons was leaving its imprint on the both the social and festive lives, as is shown by the progress of the religious feasts : feast of the trees, offering of the first sheaf of wheat, harvest feast, end of the harvests.

Secondly, we are talking about people which have always known the realities of urban life since it came to Jerusalem thrice a year as pilgrims for Pessah, Shavouot and Sukkot.

Finally, the Jews are a people which had been exiled for 50 years in Babylonia, the greatest Eastern city of that time. We have seen in chapter I-2 that time was there formalised by a lunisolar calendar with a 30 years cycle ; exactly that to which Daniel the prophet alludes to by using a submultiple of this cycle, i.e. a "lustrum" of 62 lunations - or 5 years.

In ancient times the Hebrews must have used, as all nomadic people do, a lunar counting from direct observations. But we can reasonably assume that, since they had come back from exile in the VIth century BC, they had learned from the Chaldeans to count the days in a more acute way by adopting their calendar.
That is the hypothesis that we shall study in the following chapters.

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